The ascorbic acid level in the urine builds up to a concentration where it can exert bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and virucidal effects.  Phagocytes in adjacent tissues would be stimulated to efficiently digest any bacteria.

continuously bathed in a fluid that is bactericidal and virucidal, and has detoxicating and wound-healing properties.  Infections of the urinary tract should be more easily controlled through the use of this regimen.

will prevent the development of bladder cancer.

stone formation (urinary, salivary, biliary, and so on) was due to a deficiency of ascorbic acid.

As soon as corrective administration of the vitamin effects a normal ascorbic acid level, the crystalline and organic sediment disappears like magic from the urine. 

It has been estimated that about 100,000 deaths occur each year in this country as a result of various diseases of the kidneys or their complications.  Kidney and related diseases are the main cause of work loss among American women.  About 3.5 million Americans have unrecognized and undiagnosed infections of the kidneys and urinary tract.  Painful symptoms will prompt some to seek medical advice but others, a significant number, will have no warning until the damage has reached an advanced stage.  An effective prophylactic regime is, therefore, urgently needed.
The kidneys are complex biochemical organs serving mainly to regulate  and maintain our internal environment. They do this by varying the volume of the urine and the secretion into it of various bodily waste products which would otherwise pollute our system.  The two purplish-brown, bean-shaped, depolluting kidneys are located in the small of the back and are equipped with a large blood supply.  The renal artery brings the polluted blood to the kidney and the renal vein carries away the purified blood.  The urine, produced by a complete filtration system in the kidney, is collected into a duct called the ureter, which carries the fluid to the bladder for storage.  Another tube, called the urethra, carries the urine to the outside for disposal.  Because of an evolutionary anatomical compromise of Nature, the final urinary structures are tied in with the reproductive organs, which complicates an already complex system.  The entire structure from the kidneys to the exit tubes is called the genito-urinary tract.
The megascorbic treatment rationale for many urological, renal, or genito-urinary diseases would comprise the following steps and the body’s resulting physiological responses.  Large doses of ascorbic acid are administered, preferably orally an in solution, at frequent intervals.  The doses will be of the order of 2 grams about every two hours. It is conveniently given by dissolving about a 0.5 teaspoonful of ascorbic acid in about four ounces of fruit or tomato juice or in about two ounces of water sweetened to taste with sugar or artificial sweetener.  The ascorbic acid could also be given parenterally if the physician desires.
The ascorbic acid will be rapidly absorbed and will enter the bloodstream causing a rise in the ascorbic acid blood levels to above the kidney threshold.  The kidneys start pulling it out of the blood and excreting it into the urine.  This removal by the kidneys continues and before the blood is exhausted another large does of administered ascorbic acid maintains the excretory function at a high rate.  The ascorbic acid level in the urine builds up to a concentration where it can exert bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and virucidal effects.  Phagocytes in adjacent tissues would be stimulated to efficiently digest any bacteria.
Here, then, we have a situation where the complete genito-urinary tract from the renal tubules to the urethra would be continuously bathed in a fluid that is bactericidal and virucidal, and has detoxicating and wound-healing properties.  Infections of the urinary tract should be more easily controlled through the use of this regimen.  If antibiotics or other medicaments are employed,the ascorbic acid should aid and potentiate their effects.  There do not seem to be any predictable contraindications to its use as an adjuvant treatment.  The continued presence of high levels of ascorbic acid in the urine in contact with all these tissues should prevent any incipient infections from developing.
For urological surgery a suggested program could include maintaining the patient on a preoperative schedule of about half the suggested dosage level for a few days to a week before surgery.  During and after surgery the dosage schedule should be maintained and continued until healing is complete. The patient may then put on a maintenance dose of about 5 grams per day. All these doses are only suggested starting points and may be varied as experience dictates.
A simple prophylactic regime to prevent the incidence and recurrence of kidney diseases could be based on the maintenance of high levels of ascorbic acid in the urine. This could be accomplished by the long-term use of ascorbic acid, about 3 to 5 grams a day in three to five spaced doses.  Large-scale clinical testing of this simple regimen would provide the statistics to determine its usefulness.
In 1969, Schlegel, Pipkin, and coworkers (1), at Tulane University School of Medicine, summarized the results of their research on bladder tumor formation.  They demonstrated that the oral administration of large quantities  of ascorbic acid, sufficient to produce a significant rise in the ascorbic acid content of the urine, will prevent the development of bladder cancer.  They suggest the daily intake of 1.5 grams of ascorbic acid in three spaced doses for "individuals who due to age, cigarette smoking, or other factors, may be prone to bladder tumor formation."
Another area in which ascorbic acid may be useful and has been practically unexplored is in renal failure.  When renal failure occurs,the kidneys malfunction and various chemical imbalances are produced in the blood which can be fatal.  Heroic measures may be necessary to save the patient.  One of the measures involves connecting the patient’s blood system to an artificial kidney machine, if one is available, to take over the function of the damaged kidney.  This is called "hemodialysis."  The machine purifies the polluted blood and returns the purified blood to the patient.  Until the kidney becomes normal again, the patient must make repeated trips to the machine in order to remain alive, which is a rather expensive and tedious procedure.
In 1968 and 1970, it was shown that, when patients are connected to the kidney machines, the hemodialysis not only removes the undesirable products from the blood but also removes a substantial proportion of the patient’s already low stores of ascorbic acid (2).  Replacement of his ascorbic acid is needed and page 1345 of the 1970 paper states:
Since ascorbic acid lost from the plasma during dialysis is not adequately replaced by dietary consumption of vitamin C, patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis should receive ascorbic acid supplementation as an important part of their therapeutic regimen.
Further clinical studies should be conducted on this renal failure to determine the effect of continued daily megascorbic dosages, both orally and intravenously, on the detoxifying effects of ascorbic acid in relieving the build-up of toxic materials in the blood.  If ascorbic acid can control this toxic burden, it might mean fewer trips to the scarce kidney machines with consequently less stress on the patient and his pocketbook.
Neglected but highly significant observations on rabbits with both kidneys removed, published n 1950 by Mason, Casten, and Lindsay (2), supply additional incentive for more research on the possible usefulness of ascorbic acid in kidney failure. Rabbits with both kidneys surgically removed uniformly die in three to four days.  If, however, these animals without kidneys are injected with a mixture of ascorbic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid, the scientists state;
The duration of survival was strikingly increased, ranging from five and a half to eight and a half days.  Even more striking was the improved condition of the animals during most of the period of survival.  They were alert, active, and in most respects behaved like normal rabbits until a few hours prior to death.
In kidney transplantation the possibility of using megascorbic levels of ascorbic acid has never been adequately explored.  The maintenance of these high levels may reduce the occurrence of rejection reactions and certainly would help ensure survival of the patient by counteracting the effects of surgical shock, promoting kidney function during recovery, and aiding in wound healing. The kidney research on ascorbic acid should be oriented toward the prevention of kidney damage by continued use of ascorbic acid, and if kidney damage is already present, to determine if biochemical repair can be effected.  In this way, the expensive trauma of hemodialysis and transplantation could possibly be avoided.  There are many publicly supported foundations and government agencies which could undertake this work.
Stone Formation
A criticism that has been leveled against supplying to humans the daily amounts of ascorbic acid which are normally produced in other mammals is that its acidifying effect on the urine might increase the incidence of stone formation.  The formation of stones in the urinary tract is a very complex subject and intensive and large-scale research should be conducted to resolve this important question.
Abundant archaeological evidence indicates that the stone formation is among the oldest afflictions of man.  It is common today in all parts of the world and in some areas of the world the incidence is so high that they are known as "stone belts."  In the 1964 pater, containing a bibliography of 104 references, Gershoff (3) states, "Urinary calculi vary so much in form, occurrence, and composition that it is unlikely that a single mechanism is responsible for their production."  The composition depends on whether it is a kidney stone or a bladder stone and in what part of the world the individual lives.  About 1 percent of the 280,000 surgical cases admitted to the London Hospital from 1960 to 1935 were for stones of the urinary tract.  In 25,000 autopsies at the University of Minnesota hospitals, the incidence of kidney stones was 1.12 percent.  The incidence varies considerably in different parts of the world with a high percentage of bladder stones in children one to ten years old in Thailand, India, Syria, China, and Turkey.  In an analysis of 1,000 urinary stones from the United States, 52 percent contained phosphates, 33 percent were calcium oxalate, 6 percent were urate stones, and 3 percent cystine.  Because of the wide variation in composition, the acidifying effect of ascorbic acid in the urine may inhibit stone formation of certain types, especially those containing phosphates, which comprise a large fraction of those found in American urinary stones.  McCormick (4), in 1947, surveyed the worldwide incidence of stone formation and his own clinical experience and experimentation, and he concluded that stone formation (urinary, salivary, biliary, and so on) was due to a deficiency of ascorbic acid. He pointed out that administration of ascorbic acid had profound effects on urinary sedimentation and crystallization.  He states:  "As soon as corrective administration of the vitamin effects a normal ascorbic acid level, the crystalline and organic sediment disappears like magic from the urine.  I have found that this change can usually be brought about in a matter of hours by large doses of the vitamin — 500 to 2,000 milligrams — oral or parenteral.  Subsequent maintenance doses of 100 to 300 milligrams, daily, are usually sufficient to keep the urine free from these deposits.  It would thus appear that deficiency of vitamin C, which is the predominating dietary defect in the various ‘stone area,’ may provide the predominating factor in urinary lithogenesis [stone formation]."
Most people do not drink enough water and this is a neglected and little explored factor in stone formation.  It is common knowledge that the tendency for salts to crystallize out of solution is greater the more concentrated the solution is.  In people whose water intake is low, the urine is much more concentrated.  In the "stone belts" of the world, water is scarce and of poor quality, and the climate is hot, so most of the population is in a chronic state of water deprivation.  In Israel, where there is a high incidence of urinary stone formalin, Frank and coworkers (5) were able to reduce the incidence of stone formation by merely educating the settlers to drink more water.  They stated, "Preliminary results, summarizing a 3-year period of study, suggest that education is capable of raising urine output and preventing urolithiasis (urinary stone formation) in a hot, dry climate." It is likely that copious daily intakes of good soft drinking water along with the high ascorbic acid intakes would tend to correct any individual tendency to stone formation.  The author, who has been ingesting high levels of ascorbic acid for over three decades and has not been troubled with stone formation, also tries to drink at least a quart of water a day in addition to other fluids.  Large-scale clinical studies should be started to obtain further data because there are probably millions of Americans taking high levels of ascorbic acid on their own volition.
Several minor studies on urinary oxalate excretion have already been made because oxalate formation is a possible result of ascorbic acid breakdown in the body and calcium oxalate is a constituent of many human stones.  In a test of 51 male subjects reported in 1954 by Lamden and coworkers (6), results showed that the daily ingestion of up to 4 grams of ascorbic acid a day produced no significant increase in oxalate excretion.  Eight grams a day produced an average increase of 45 milligrams a day and 9 grams increased average oxalate excretion by 68 milligrams a day. The range of urinary oxalate excretion of the subjects before taking the ascorbic acid was 10 to 64 milligrams per day.  The normal individual variations among their subjects, of 54 milligrams a day, was thus greater than the average increase in excretion found for the 8-gram ascorbic acid test intake.  Two papers from Japan in 1966 and one from Egypt (6), in 1970, reported similar additional results.  Takenouchi and coworkers reported that 3 grams of ascorbic acid produced no marked increases in oxalate excretion in three subjects, while 9 grams a day increased it to 20 to 30 milligrams a day. The variation in oxalate excretion of their three subjects before taking the ascorbic acid (11 to 64 milligrams per day) was even greater than the increase found for the 9-gram intake.  Takaguchi and coworkers gave their three groups of ten subjects 1 and 2 grams of ascorbic acid daily for 90 to 180 days.  They found no significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion.  The normal oxalate excretion of their subjects on the same standardized diet before taking the ascorbic acid varied from a low of 11 milligrams to a high of 55 milligrams.  El-Dakhakhny and El-Sayed fed 4 grams of ascorbic acid to 8 subjects on the same diet whose urinary oxalate excretion before the ascorbic acid varied from 17 to 132 milligrams per day.  In one subject there was no change, in two subjects there was a decrease of 32 to 56 milligrams, while in the other five, increases of 10 to 18 milligrams a day were reported.  Evidently there are many other factors beside ascorbic acid that determine urinary oxalate.
While cystine stones are relatively rare, the megascorbic approach to their control has never been considered before. Cystine is the insoluble, oxidized form of the acid-soluble, sulfur amino acid cysteine. The soluble form (cysteine) is a stone reducing agent, like ascorbic acid, and both cysteine and ascorbic acid are members of normal biological oxidation-reduction systems.  They both interact and protect each other from the bad effects of oxidation.  Maintenance of high levels of the highly reducing ascorbic acid in the urinary system of cystinurics (those people prone to cystine stones) may make it possible to maintain their abnormally high cysteine levels in the reduced soluble form and thus avoid conversion to the insoluble cystine, with subsequent crystallization and stone formation.  In this way, the excess cysteine could be disposed of in a reduced soluble form in the ascorbic acid-acidified urine. This is similar to the rationale proposed by Schlegel, Pipkin and coworkers (1) who utilized the antioxidant effect of ascorbic acid in the prevention of bladder cancer.  This rationale for cystine stone prevention is an entirely new area of clinical research resulting from these megascorbic concepts.

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