The Neutrolene Story

“The Neutrolene Story”

In the “Neutrolene Story”, what we are basically concerned with is:
1. Body Acid build-up
2. Alkali Reserves
3. Renal excretion of body acids
4. Sodium & bi-carbonate losses
5. Stimulating thirst to rehydrate after hard work

All day long, the body produces acids and every cell in the body is building-up acid.

What the body’s system must do is (a) get rid of the acids, and (b) conserve it’s alkali base, and thereby preserve the cellular and blood pH at a normal level to allow body functions to continue within a narrow optimal pH range.

The mode of excretion of acid build-up is a series of very complex processes; the simplest and fastest method being BREATHING whereby the majority of carbonic acid produced is eliminated in the form of carbon dioxide.

The stronger organic acids, such as lactic acid, have to be removed by a much slower method, namely through the KIDNEYS (After as much lactate as possible is converted back to glucose immediately after hard work finishes.).

Under normal conditions, a non-working horse can rid itself of acid build-up without depleting its alkali reserve, with the kidney playing an important role in maintaining the correct acid-base balance (pH) of the body within the very narrow limits compatible with life. HENCE, KIDNEY FUNCTION SUPPLEMENT IS NECESSARY – LIU WEI DI HUANG WAN.

However, the situation changes dramatically when the body has cancer/fungi which produces massive lactic acid and a subsequent, and significant, increase in body acid build up.

The acids are neutralized when they combine with an alkali (e.g.: Sodium) to form a salt (e.g.: Sodium Lactate). The immediate effect of this neutralizing process is a lowering of the body’s alkali reserve due to loss of Sodium. Low sodium levels reduce the thirst reflex, so one with low sodium won’t be inclined to drink.

cancer/fungi develop lactic acidosis from anaerobic metabolism. This increases blood acidity by elevating H+ ions (hydrogen).
Acidosis can be described as a state where the body’s blood has become more acidic than is normal i.e. an excess of H+ ions in blood. It causes muscle fatigue, failure to finish on (reduced stamina), muscle soreness (may contribute to tying up), condition can be worsened by dehydration, can cause depression & behavioural problems.

Alkalosis on the other hand causes poor performance, blowing after exercise, nervousness, muscle cramps, gut upset, increased bicarbonate levels in blood.

Salts formed as a result of the acids being neutralised, cannot pass through the kidney as solids, they must go into solution. To do this, they must take water from the horse’s system before being finally excreted in the urine.
At this point, it should be noted, that due to the above a horse in work loses in just one hour up to twice as much water and Sodium (and Chlorides) as would normally be lost in a whole day at rest. See notes above

From all of the above it can be appreciated that this continual neutralizing/water loss/kidney function can easily lead to depleted alkali reserve (ACIDOSIS) and DEHYDRATION, with the resultant adverse affect on the horse’s performance and physical well-being.

ACID URINE results from excessive build-up when there is insufficient alkali reserve available to neutralize the free acid.

Acid urine situations are seen in cases when a horse STRETCHES OUT TRYING TO URINATE…. he wants to but cannot … the reason being that the kidney is actually trying to hold back fluid because the horse is already dehydrated.

The action of Neutrolene/Neutrolene PLUS/ Neutrolene PLUS WITH CHOLINE in acid urine cases is such that it supplies the necessary constituents, in sufficient quantities, to combine with the free organic acids and thus make the urine ALKALINE; even allowing for the alkali losses which must accompany the neutralization and excretion of these acids.

In acid urine cases, some trainers make the serious mistake of administering a diuretic ball, which actually heightens the problem by forcing the kidneys to release fluid from the system of an already dehydrated horse.

At this point it should also be noted that FIT HORSES have very little excess body fluids, and consequently, the volume of urine passed is low and concentrated. Again, some trainers make the mistake as seeing this as being a sign of “kidney trouble” and administer a diuretic ball thus predisposing the horse to dehydration by forcing the kidney to take more water from the horse’s body (a more rational treatment would be electrolytes and free access to water).

Dehydration can be caused from (a) inadequate supply of water, or (b) inadequate intake of water due to a depression of the thirst reflex resulting from electrolyte (incl. Sodium) depletion.

LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION
Carbohydrates are stored in the horses’ muscles in the form of GLYCOGEN. When the horse is exercised in an intense workout (anaerobically), this glycogen is broken down and used for energy this results in the formation of LACTIC ACID.

Note: The anaerobic (in the presence of inadequate oxygen) or glycolytic pathway utilizes carbohydrate exclusively in the breaking down of glycogen and subsequent production of lactic acid.

After energy availability, the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and blood is the most limiting factor of muscular activity and apparently results in muscle fibre damage, muscle cramps, “Tying-up”. Lactic acid in muscle and blood is a prime cause of fatigue, thus limiting performance.

Many horses are not properly trained for racing, and this factor probably also contributes to some cases of the “Tying-up” syndrome.

THE HORSE IS AN ATHLETE…. and an athlete cannot train for ONE HOUR a day and spend the other 23 hours in a box and be expecting to do well in athletic competition.

Considerable production of lactic acid exceeds the horse’s normal buffering capacity and supplementary buffers are required (as supplied in Neutrolene PLUS/ Neutrolene PLUS WITH CHOLINE).

AEROBIC: In the presence of adequate oxygen. No lactic acid produced.

ANAEROBIC: Where the oxygen supply is inadequate. Lactic acid produced.

Horses which work at speed over distance (THOROUGHBREDS and STANDARDBREDS) do considerable ANAEROBIC WORK in both training and racing…. And anaerobic work results in the production of lactic acid and other noxious by-products.

Horses which work at relatively slow rates over long distances (e.g.: endurance horses) do so AEROBICALLY. The advantage of aerobic work is that noxious metabolic by-products such as lactic acid are NOT produced in quantity, and thus metabolic diseases as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter, energy depletion and lactic acidosis are not prominent.

Lactic Acid lowers pH in muscle cells, denaturing protein and damaging the cell wall, and reducing endurance and performance by stimulating muscle fatigue.

Lactic Acidosis impairs muscle function and interferes with athletic performance.

TRAINING (Conditioning) HORSES

Involves 2 basic segments:-

Segment 1
: Strengthening bone
“ Ligament (band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilages).
“ Tendon (connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone).
“ Cartilage (specialized type of connective tissue).
 " Hoof

Segment 2
: Developing systems for producing energy in skeletal and cardiac muscle under aerobic (with 02) and anaerobic conditions. In training for SPEED, which is largely done anaerobically, the principal focus is skeletal muscle.
Endurance Ride 3-DE Cross Country Trotting or Pacing Thoroughbred Resting (240m/min) (500 m/min) (700-750m/min) Galloper

ABNORMAL EXCRETION OF AMMONIA:
Ammonia that is produced in the kidney process (particularly when high protein feeds are in excess) is eliminated from the body when the URINE IS ACID. (Renal production of Ammonia is stimulated by acidosis).

When pungent, excessive ammonia smells are apparent in a horse’s box, it indicates that the horse’s normal alkali reserves have been chronically depleted (in the process of neutralizing excessive amounts of body acids) to such an extent that the horse’s system is forced into producing Ammonia (to get rid system of acid) in order to conserve base Sodium.

NORMAL Bicarbonate range: 29.5 – 34.0

Blood analysis example of how bicarbonate levels are lowered as a result of work:
Before Work 30.74
Straight After 16.10
2 Hours After 28.31
7 Hours After 29.43

In the above practical example it should be noted that while the drop in level only appears to be minimal it is nevertheless very significant and VERY CRITICAL, and acid-alkali ratio must be maintained within very narrow limits.

Bicarbonates are used to neutralize excess body acids as follows: H Cl + Na H CO3 Na Cl + H2 CO3

Strong Buffer Neutral Weak
Acid Salt Salt Acid

The weak carbonic Acid replaces the strong Hydrochloric Acid, and at the same time because the Carbonic Acid is volatile it can be rapidly removed as CO2 by breathing out.

Hyperventilation after hard work depletes the horse’s alkali reserve, as the bicarbonates are lost from the system as the acid is neutralized and expelled as CO2.

A low CO2 content is noticed in loss of carbon dioxide, as a result of hyperventilation, and is also seen in a case of metabolic acidosis or lowered alkali reserve (see blood sample example below).

CO2 content in Blood:
Before Work 32.23
Straight After 17.21
2 Hours After 30.11
7 hours After 31.02

(Normal CO2 Range: 31 – 35.5)

GENERAL NOTES:
Neutrolene / Neutrolene PLUS/ Neutrolene PLUS WITH CHOLINE (as applicable)
1. When using sodium acid citrate supplements, the sodium is supplemented, and the citrate actually can enter the cells to neutralise lactic acid. Bicarbonate cannot enter cells, so remains in extracellular fluid. These supplements are actually more effective at reducing cellular acidosis before the acidosis spreads to blood, causing metabolic acidosis
2. BUFFER SALTS or BUFFER BASE: These salts exist in equilibrium in the horse’s body fluids and can absorb either excessive acids or excessive alkalis. Neutrolene is a citrate-base buffer system to allow the equine athlete to cope better with the surges of lactic acid after strenuous exercise. The added buffer salts in Neutrolene PLUS/Neutrolene PLUS WITH CHOLINE are used to absorb excessive acid when the naturally occurring buffer salts have been exhausted.
3. Choline has several important functions; it is vital for the prevention of fatty livers, transmitting of nerve impulses and the metabolism of fats. Without choline, fatty deposits build up inside the liver, blocking its function and throwing the whole body in a state of ill health.

As established above, the pH level of a horse’s blood is critical. The normal range of a horse’s blood is between 7.42 and 7.45. Any disturbance in the blood pH level will result in a drop in performance. Any product from the Neutrolene range provides a mild alkaline diuretic with the main function being replacement of alkaline body bases and the neutralising of excessive acid build up.

Note: when using sodium acid citrate supplements, the sodium is supplemented, and the citrate actually can enter the cells to neutralise lactic acid. Bicarbonate cannot enter cells, so remains in extracellular fluid. These supplements are actually more effective at reducing cellular acidosis before the acidosis spreads to blood, causing metabolic acidosis.

Need help? contact Ranvet
Ranvet Pty Ltd
Technical Information Hotline: 1800 727 217
Tel: 02 9666 1744 Fax: 02 9666 1755
Tel :International + 61 2 9666 1744 Fax :International + 61 2 9666 1755 10-12 Green Street, Botany, NSW, 2019, Australia
Copyright © 2003 Ranvet

MANUEL C. KIOK
Green & Gold Intl., Exports
84 Dapitan St., #307
1114 Quezon City, Philippines
Tels: (63 2) 4158714; 361 6999
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