A Diet For The Prevention And Treatment Of CYSTIC FIBROSIS

Dr. Joel D. Wallach’s Cystic Fibrosis Research

 Following his discovery of a nutritionally-caused cystic fibrosis (CF)-like syndrome in Rhesus monkeys in 1979, Wallach conducted a survey of 120 families with one or more CF children. The patient profiles obtained were consistent with CF as an acquired environmental disease caused by a prenatal deficiency of selenium, zinc and riboflavin, and/or exacerbated by diets low in vitamin E and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Based on these findings, Wallach proposed a diet for the prevention and treatment of CF. To demonstrate that CF -like pancreatic lesions develop in populations living in regions naturally low in selenium, Wallach and his wife, Ma Lan, in collaboration with researchers at Harbin Medical University, showed that hitherto unrecognized pancreatic lesions occurred in 35% of 1700 documented cases of Keshan disease (KSD), which is a cardiomyopathy occurring in low-selenium regions of China[1]. Other researchers have since drawn attention to the aberrant oxygen-free radical activity and the low selenium and antioxidant status in cystic fibrosis patients[2-4]. It is now also agreed that selenium deficiency may develop in CF children because of digestive malabsorption or after prolonged total parenteral nutrition [5-7]. In addition, a case of cardiomyopathy in a CF patient caused by selenium deficiency has also been described[8]. The therapy of CF patients with selenium and antioxidant vitamins has also been tested in a clinical trial.  One German group[9] concluded:
“In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients the antioxidative-oxidative balance is chronically disturbed. Free radicals were generated by bronchial pulmonal infection and additionally (there) exists a deficiency of antioxidative substances by enteral malabsorption especially (of) vitamin E and selenium. For CF patients therefore we recommend a sodium selenite substitution therapy, best in combination with vitamin E.”

While research is now under way to introduce the missing cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator (CFTR-) gene by means of a retroviral transferring agent, it is still not known if this treatment will actually work. Nutritional therapeutic approaches such as were first proposed by Wallach instead hold promise if not as a cure at least to alleviate symptoms and increase the survival of CF patients.

Dr. Wallach’s views on the longevity of physicians

Wallach claims that American medical doctors have an average life-span of only 58.5 years and hence are poor role models of longevity. His critics argue that doctors in reality have a greater life-expectancy than the general population[10]. Wallach calculated the average age of physician death from some of the obituary listings that are regularly published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. From this data, Wallach’s result is indeed obtained. In contrast, the National Center for Health Statistics lists 69.7 years as the average life-span of an American physician. In order to explain this discrepancy, it should be noted that this figure applies to physicians of all specialties and includes nonpracticing physicians.

The life-expectancy of General Practitioners (G.P’s) is pertinent because they would most likely be approached by patients for counsel in regard to achieving longevity. According to Goodman [11], G.P’s have the shortest life-span of all  medical specialties.

The standard mortality rate of G.P’s below age 55 for the years 1969-1973 was 140.4%, at above 55 years, 111.4% above the average mortality of all physicians. The shorter life span of G.P’s was attributed to the fact that they begin their careers at an earlier age and thus are subjected to the stress of practice for longer periods than specializing physicians[11]. While stress undoubtedly is a major factor which shortens the life span of G.P’s, the neglect of their own health and unhealthful habits also contribute.

According to a survey published in 1984, no less than 59% of the physicians questioned considered themselves overweight, 73% felt they were not exercising enough, 24% admitted to frequent drinking and 15% were smokers[12]. The same report concludes that “there may be a far larger group of subclinically impaired physicians whose health habits may not only affect their own longevity but their practice of medicine as well”, which in essence proves Wallach’s point. There are, of course, physicians who reach long life-spans by living healthily or by making appropriate life-style changes when necessary. So as far as G.P’s are concerned, however, Wallach is right.

Glacier water and longevity

Dr. Wallach mentions 5 cultures whose populations attain unusually long life-spans. The best known of these cultures are the Hunzas of Kashmir, about whom numerous books have been written. Physicians such as Sir Robert McCarrison established that the Hunzas remain remarkably free of disease during their long lives. This has been attributed to lifestyle, diet, agricultural practices and the mineral-rich glacier milk used for irrigation and as drinking water[13]. Other researchers have ascribed the longevity of the Hunzas, inter alia, to the consumption of glacier water. Dr. Wallach thus is only quoting what can be found in the literature.

Cardiomyopathy and selenium deficiency

Dr. Wallach states that cardiomyopathy is caused by a selenium deficiency, his critics counter that cardiomyopathy is really an entire group of heart muscle diseases with several different causes. He uses a more precise definition of cardiomyopathy, based on the detection of oxygen radical damage of the heart muscle. Oxygen radical damage of the myocardium can occur in many diseases. Since selenium prevents the generation of oxygen radicals, cardiomyopathy is caused by primary selenium deficiency in regions naturally low in selenium, as was first shown to be the case in the Keshan-Disease regions of China[14].

Cardiomyopathies due to selenium deficiency were at first considered unlikely to develop in the Western industrialized nations until they were shown to occur in patients after prolonged total parenteral nutrition, in subjects with destructive lifestyles (such as alcoholics), in patients suffering from intestinal malabsorption or from diseases resulting in decreased Se-retention such as AIDS, and in cancer patients treated with certain cytotoxic drugs.

Selenium deficiency also plays a role in the causation of Coxsackie B-virus (CBV) induced cardiomyopathies[15]. Selenium deficiency is, indeed, the major cause of cardiomyopathy, although classical textbooks of cardiology, even the newest editions, still often fail to mention selenium at all. However, M.R.Werbach, in his up-to-date reference book on “Nutritional Influences on Illness” [2nd Edition 1993, Third Line Press, Tarzana, Calif., p. 189], states that selenium deficiency is associated with the development of cardiomyopathy, while deficiencies of other agents, e.g. magnesium, L-carnitine, coenzyme Q only may be factors in the development of the condition.

Low back pain and osteoporosis

Wallach was accused of expressing the “absurd idea” that all low back pain is due to osteoporosis. However, Wallach only mentions osteoporosis as a contributing cause of low back pain. He is (correctly) linking calcium and copper deficiency with the initiation of osteoporosis, which then initiates disk degeneration and back pain. In his book “Let’s Play Doctor”, he writes:

“Backache is usually a muscle strain from overwork and/or a subluxation resulting from a fall, auto accident or improper lifting technique. On occasion, a serious case of constipation will cause a ‘backache’ from impacted stool or pressure from gas…. Prevention includes proper lifting technique, strengthening exercises, proper nutrition including calcium (2000 mg) and magnesium (800 mg), high fiber diets and eight glasses of water per day.”

Wallach on Alzheimer’s disease

Wallach was criticized for suggesting that 50% of 70-year old Americans have Alzheimer’s disease when the actual prevalence of the disease in people between the ages of 65-75 years is only about 3.9%. Dr. Wallach did not say “one out of two people who reach the age of 70 years has the disease”, what he actually said was that “one out of two people who reach the age of 70 years gets the disease”, meaning that they have a 50% chance of getting the disease in their remaining life-span. In this he is on realistic grounds if it is considered that senile dementia to-day is often diagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and calcium

Wallach recommends supplemental calcium, along with essential fatty acids, vitamin B6, Vitamin A, vitamin E, mistletoe, black and blue cohosh, for treatment of premenstrual syndrome. A randomized crossover trial published in 1989[16] has proven the efficacy of calcium supplementation. The authors of this study summarized their findings as follows:

33 patients randomly received calcium carbonate, 1,000 mg daily and placebo for 3 mo. each in either order. On prospective daily ratings, there was a reduction in symptoms while on calcium supplementation during both their luteal (p=0.011) and menstrual (p=0.032) phases, but not during their intermenstrual phase. On retrospective assessment, 73% reported fewer symptoms during calcium treatment, 15% preferred placebo and 12% had no clear preference. 3 premenstrual factors: negative affect (p=0.045), water retention (p=0.003) and pain (p=0.036); and 1 menstrual factor: pain (p=0.02) were significantly alleviated by calcium.

Bell’s Palsy

In his book, Lets Play Doctor , Wallach correctly states that Bell’s Palsy is caused by an inflammation, swelling or squeezing of the facial nerve. He recommends a treatment that involves not only the administration of calcium, but also of magnesium, essential fatty acids, American ginseng, colloidal minerals and vitamin B12. This is a naturopathic treatment which Dr. Wallach in his practice has found to be effective when conventional medical treatments failed.

Male pattern baldness and tin deficiency

Wallach claims that significant hair regrowth can be stimulated following tin supplementation. The stimulation of hair growth by tin at high dilutions is not an unfounded idea. The basis for this claim was originally reported by Schwarz et al.[17] who observed hair loss resembling male-pattern baldness in tin deficient rats. These findings were subsequently confirmed in a 1990 study by Yokoi et al.[18] of Kyoto University.

Wrinkles, gray hair and copper deficiency

That copper influences the pigmentation of hair is well supported by observations with copper-deficient animals. Experiments conducted in the early 1930s showed that the fur of black-coated rats turned gray when they were placed on a copper deficient diet[19,20]. Depigmentation of hair has been described in other species deficient in copper: rabbits, dogs and sheep.  Copper is known to be required for the transformation of tyrosine to melanin.  In copper deficiency, the physical nature of hair is also affected, it becomes brittle and crinkled because oxidative processes which give hair its normal elasticity require copper[20]. Other factors contribute to the graying of hair, a deficiency of pantothenic acid, for example. Clinical studies of the effects of copper supplementation on hair color in humans appear to be lacking. However, in Rare Earths and Forbidden Cures, Wallach does report the case of a woman whose gray hair regained pigmentation after supplementing with copper. Since copper is required for elastin and collagen biosynthesis, changes of elastic connective tissues are expected occur in copper deficiency. Studies have shown that 75% of the typical diets in the United States furnish less than the current daily requirement of 2 mg of copper per day[21]. Accordingly, chronic copper deficiency could indeed contribute to hair depigmentation and skin wrinkling, especially in women. In a recent study with 20 pregnant women on self-selected diets, positive balance was
observed only if a copper supplement was consumed[22].

Copper deficiency – a cause of aneurysms?

Wallach should be given credit for drawing attention to the important role of copper deficiency in the pathogenesis of aneurysms. Wallach has not said that all aneurysms are caused by a copper deficiency. He only claims that aneurysms are most frequently caused by a copper deficiency, which has been shown in studies of many animal species (pigs, guinea pigs, rabbits, cattle, chicks, turkeys, etc.)[19,20]. Copper is needed for elastin synthesis, specifically for the oxidative deamination of lysine. Diminished deamination of this amino acid causes less lysine to be converted to desmosine, the cross-linking group of elastin[21,22]. This results in fewer cross-linkages in this protein, which, in return, results in less elasticity of the aorta. Copper deficiency in humans was considered rare but is now becoming a concern primarily in pregnancy. In a recent study with 20 pregnant women on self-selected diets, positive balance was observed  only if a copper supplement was consumed[23]. Copper deficiency need not be caused solely by low dietary copper intakes; copper deficiency may be induced by dietary components, notably fructose and ascorbic acid; some also consider excessive zinc as a possible risk factor.

How minerals are stored in the body

Dr. Wallach’s claim that minerals are stored and used in the body in the colloidal state depends on the definition of “colloids”. Some minerals are bound to proteins which do not pass through dialysis membranes and so do behave as “colloids”. Iron is stored in the body mainly in the form of ferritin. Ferritin contains in its core up to 4500 molecules of iron oxide/phosphate, the core is covered by a protein shell whose molecular weight is 445,000. Because of their large molecular weight, ferritin suspension in water may well be described as colloidal. The claim that minerals are stored in the form of salts or “ions” is wrong inasmuch as salts or ions thereof are mobile forms of the minerals, not storage forms.

Diabetes, chromium and vanadium

Dr. Wallach’s claim that diabetes and hypoglycemia are due to vanadium and chromium deficiency was said to be unsupported by clinical research. However, published evidence is available that indicates a role of chromium and vanadium on the insulin system and in human diabetes[25-27]. According to USDA’s Richard Anderson[25], …suboptimal intakes of chromium by people consuming average diets may lead to signs and symptoms of chromium deficiency that include elevated blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and decreased insulin binding and receptor number.

Extreme signs of Cr deficiency were observed in TPN patients and were corrected by Cr supplementation. Vanadium is being considered as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Khandelweal and Pugazhenti at University of Saskatchewan, Canada, state[28]:  “Several studies have clearly demonstrated that vanadium has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes. In a recent study[29], vanadate was found to enhance insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients.”

Iron in supplements

When Dr. Wallach refers to “rust” or iron oxide in iron preparations he is referring to products such as “saccharated iron oxide” or products such as “Niferex” (Center Pharmaceuticals), containing iron oxide as a polysaccharide complex. Other iron compounds in supplements hydrolyze in the stomach to produce iron hydroxide, which is chemically closely equivalent to iron oxide and has low bioavailability.

Concerning “Colloidal Minerals”

“Colloidal minerals” comprise a group of liquid mineral supplements that are produced  by leaching deposits of humic shales with water. The extracts were originally thought to contain the minerals predominantly in colloidal forms.  It is now known that they contain the minerals in ionic as well as in colloidal forms. Because the term “colloidal” may give rise to misunderstandings, the products are now referred to as “liquid-” or “plant-derived minerals”. In terms of their composition and efficacy, the extracts resemble certain natural mineral waters that were used in the past against anemias arising from iron deficiency as well as other conditions[30].  As to the superior bioavailability of liquid minerals as compared to minerals in their elemental state, this claim is correct because liquid minerals solutions are acidic which facilitates their absorption in the duodenum.

Letter from Lendon H. Smith, M.D.

I have known Joel Wallach for many years and he never ceases to amaze me. He is busy, bright, and has his finger in more modalities of healing than I ever knew existed. I fist met him about 15 years ago when I was getting started in the nutritional approach to the care and feeding of children. He was an inspiration as I was realizing how much the practice of Veterinary Medicine is like Pediatrics: one really has to use one’s diagnostic acumen to figure out the pathology.

I also became aware, with much help from Joel, that nutrition is the basis of health. He learned that through his Veterinary training, and it was reinforced when he discovered that many of the diseases of animals have their counterparts in humans. He was able to show me that cystic fibrosis was related to the Selenium deficiency of the mother during the pregnancy and that the full-blown disease in a child did not show up unless the deficiency was not corrected in the child early. Of course, the standard orthodox medical though still believes that genetics and genetics alone determines who will get the disease and how seriously.

Joel has tried to get someone to believe his ideas are worth investigating, but once Doctors make up their minds – well, you know how stubborn they can be. I was like that once, but people like Joel have helped me see the light. We (MD’s) do not have all the answers. Knowing that he has been forced to deal with these negative attitudes despite his
Presentation of reproducible facts, you can understand his rather blatant doctor-bashing tirades scattered through the book. Some is fair, some is overdone. Go for it Joel, get it off your chest!

The nice thing about this book is that Joel assumes that the reader is reasonably intelligent. He assumes the reader knows what a rash is, and that if a person has a high fever and a convulsion, the reader would naturally dash off to the emergency room. Most everyone is aware that ice water is best for burns, not lard.

His background in Naturopathic Medicine makes his remedies credible. We need to become more familiar with the natural healing methods; we also need to know when to draw the line between home care and real emergency. I can remember one of our children giving me a fright when she was but a baby. She had a high fever and a convulsion and I was trying to be calm. “Let me see, now, what do I tell people over the phone when they call about this problem – oh, yes, the comfortable hot bath to get the skin capillaries dilated, and then sponging off that red skin with a wash cloth so the water can evaporate.” And it worked. We do need people around with some authority to tell us To do something when we become stoned, mute, and immobile when faced with the awesomeness of a medical, human condition that needs our ministrations.

Joel has put this book together so you can be a better and more efficient, caring, human being, mother, father, grandfather. You should be able to figure out what you can do at home and when you need some help from the doctor whose skills we recognize. We need books like Joel’s to show us that alternative methods of health care are safe, cheap, and sometimes even more effective than drugs.

Thanks Joel, for bringing to our attention that we ourselves may be the best doctor for ourselves. After all, we live inside our own bodies; no-one else.

Lendon H. Smith, M.D.
5th September 1989


[1] a: J.D.Wallach, Ma Lan, Wei Han Yu, Bo-Qi Gu, Feng Teng Yu and Roy F. Goddard (1990): Common denominators in the etiology and pathology of visceral lesions of cystic fibrosis and Keshan Disease. Biol. Trace El. Res. 24: 189-205. b: J.D.Wallach B. Garmaise (1979): Cystic fibrosis – A perinatal manifestation of selenium deficiency. In: Hemphill D.D.
[30] G.N.Schrauzer (1999) An evaluation of liquid vitamin-mineral supplement technology. J. Medic. Food 1(3) 207-216.

[1] Address for correspondence: Biological Trace Element Research Institute,
11526 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite A, San Diego, California 92121.

List of Published Books, Videos and Audio cassettes


Rhino Express
                    Contributions include Josephine E. Wallach
Published by Vantage Press

1983           Diseases of Exotic Animals
                    Contributions include William J. Boever, DVM, W. B. Saunders Company, Medical                     and Surgical Management

1989           Let’s Play Doctor
                    Co-authored by Dr. Ma Lan, MD, MS
Published by Double Happiness Publishing Co.

1993           Rare Earth’s Forbidden Cures
                    Co-authored by Dr. Ma Lan, MD, MS
Published by Double Happiness Publishing Company

1994          “Dead Doctors Don’t Lie” Audiocassette
“Dead Athletes Don’t Lie” Audiocassette

1995           “Dead Doctors Don’t Lie II” Audiocassette

1996           “Dead Doctors Don’t Lie” VHS Video Cassette

1999            Dead Doctors Don’t Lie – The Book

2001            Let’s Play Herbal Doctor – The Book

2002           God Bless America – Dr Wallach’s Nutritional Health and Survival Epiphany!

Dr. Wallach has also done vast biomedical research publications, 75 peer-reviewed articles and book contributions.


Dr. Joel D. Wallach
is a veterinarian, naturopathic physician, author and lecturer who played a major role in the development of the market of liquid vitamin – mineral supplements. He became nationally known through his widely distributed audio tape, “ Dead Doctors Don’t Lie“. Periodically, critics question his background and some of his views. The present account specifically analyzes some of the objections raised in the Third Edition of the Medical Resource Manual (First Image, Inc.), 1997 pp. 74-75.
Dr. Wallach’s background and professional Career
Dr. Wallach’s publications and number of autopsies performed
Dr. Wallach’s Cystic Fibrosis Research
Dr. Wallach’s views on the longevity of physicians
Glacier water and longevity
Cardiomyopathy and selenium deficiency
Low back pain and osteoporosis
Wallach on Alzheimer’s disease
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and calcium
Bell’s Palsy
Male pattern baldness and tin deficiency
Wrinkles, gray hair and copper deficiency
Copper deficiency – a cause of aneurysms?
How minerals are stored in the body
Diabetes, chromium and vanadium
Iron in supplements
Concerning “Colloidal Minerals”
Letter from Lendon H Smith, M.D
List of Published Books, Videos and Audio Cassettes
Dr. Wallach ‘s research has resulted in the publication of more than 70 peer review and refereed journal articles in the fields of nutrition and pharmaceutical research, and he has made major contributions to eight multi-authored text and reference books on these subjects. The following is a general summary of his educational and biomedical research credentials:

Education – Dr. Wallach obtained a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture from the University of Missouri in 1962, with a major in Animal Husbandry (Nutrition) and a minor in Field Crops and Soils. In 1964 he was awarded a Doctorate in Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.), also from the University of Missouri . Thereafter, Dr. Wallach completed a three year (1965-68) post-doctoral fellowship at The Center for the Biology of Natural Systems at Washington University in St. Louis , Missouri . In 1982 he obtained a Doctorate in Naturopathic Medicine (N.D.) from the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in Portland , Oregon .
Publications – This is a partial chronological list of biomedical research publications authored (in whole or in part) by Dr. Wallach :

1.) Wallach , J.D. , Goitrogenic Hypothyroidism in Feeder Lambs. VM/SAC 60:1051-1053; 1965.

79.) Wallach , J.D. and Ma Lan, M.D., Black Gene Lies, Wellness Publications, LLC, Bonita , CA 2006.

Articles about Dr. Joel D. Wallach


Dr. Joel D. Wallach’s background and professional Career

Joel D. Wallach was born in West St. Louis County on June 4, 1940.  Growing up on a farm led him to decide already early in his life to become a veterinarian and nutritionist. After finishing high school, Wallach enrolled in the University of Missouri at Columbia, first to study Agriculture with a major in animal husbandry and a minor in field crops and soils. The School of Agriculture at the University of Missouri has departments of nutrition, food science, geology and biochemistry and an internationally acclaimed  “Trace Substances Research Center” which explores the biological, economic, and health significance of trace substances in environmental health. In this interdisciplinary academic environment, Wallach flourished and gathered a wealth of information that would later help him in his practice as a veterinary pathologist and naturopathic physician. In 1962, Wallach received a B.S. Degree in Agriculture from Missouri and continued on to study veterinary medicine at the same Institution, which in 1964 awarded him the degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.). From 1966 to 1967, he held a post-doctoral fellowship in comparative medicine at the Center for the Biology of Natural Systems, George-Washington-University, St. Louis. Thereafter, Wallach worked at Iowa State University Diagnostic Laboratory, Ames, Iowa, and subsequently, for two years, at Natal Fish & Game Department, Natal, Republic of South Africa.

During the early 1960s, environmental pollution and other ecological factors were thought to cause the premature death of captive animals and possibly of humans. The National Institutes of Health awarded the St. Louis Zoological Gardens a large grant to identify these factors. The project required a well-rounded wildlife veterinarian and pathologist. Wallach was hired for this position, which provided him with the opportunity to autopsy a wide variety of captive wild animals dying of natural causes in zoos at St. Louis, Chicago, Los Angeles, Jacksonville, and Memphis. Later, at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Department of Pathology, Atlanta, Georgia, Wallach conducted comparative autoptic studies on primates as well as on humans. His work was progressing well until 1979, when he discovered pancreatic lesions in the offspring of a family of inadequately fed rhesus monkeys which histologically were identical to those observed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This finding led Wallach to propose that CF in humans was also caused by nutritional imbalances and/or deficiencies. As CF is considered to be a genetic disorder, his view seemed so extreme at the time that he was dismissed from his position at Yerkes Primate Research Center. Scientific evidence would subsequently catch up with his bold hypothesis, but in the interim, with little or no chance of finding an appropriate position in his profession, Wallach decided to change careers. In 1980, Wallach joined the Faculty of the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in Portland, Oregon, where he taught in the area of nutrition while pursuing an N.D. degree in 1982. After obtaining his N.D. degree and license in 1982, Wallach went into private practice in Cannon Beach, Oregon, specializing in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis  patients. In 1987, to continue his research on cystic fibrosis, he travelled to China with his new wife, Dr. Ma Lan, a Chinese physician, to conduct a study at Harbin Medical University. From 1990 to 1993, Wallach worked (legally) as a naturopathic physician for Hospital Santa Monica in Tijuana/Mexico.

Dr. Joel Wallach’s publications and number of autopsies performed

A partial list of Dr. Wallach’s publications, reviews and books authored or coauthored during the period from 1965 to 1994 comprises 55 titles; 20 of his papers were published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA); 6 reviews appeared in professional books, the remainder in other professional veterinary journals.

Wallach furthermore is the coauthor (with W.J. Boever) of an authoritative treatise, “ Diseases of Exotic Animals: Medical and Surgical Management” published by W.B.Saunders Co. Philadelphia in 1983. He also authored (with Ma Lan) two books directed to lay audiences, “Let’s Play Doctor” and “Rare Earth’s and Forbidden Cures“, both published by Double Happiness Publishing Co., Bonita, CA.  His first paper appearing in 1965 describes goitrogenic hypothyroidism in feeder lambs; subsequent articles and reviews deal, inter alia, with common diseases and treatments for waterfowl, game birds, exotic birds, reptiles, fish, ruminants, kangaroos, monkeys, elephants, nutritional problems of captive exotic animals, descriptions of a case of degenerative arthritis in a black rhinoceros, of visceral gout and nutritional problems in captive reptiles, angioedema in a gorilla, fibrous osteodystrophy and hypervitaminosis D in green iguanas, the immobilization of small and very large animals (rabbits, Guinea pigs, African elephants), steatitis in captive crocodiles, the anaesthesia of reptiles, the hand-rearing of a white rhinoceros, surgical techniques for caged birds, the management of captive elephants, erysipelas and cystic fibrosis.

His papers and reviews are well written, thoroughly referenced and often richly illustrated. Exemplary is his review “Nutritional Diseases of Exotic Animals” appearing in 1970 (JAVMA 157, pp. 583-599) in which he documents numerous diseases in a wide variety of captive exotic animals resulting from improper feeding practices. In this review, Wallach presents 19 photographs of animals or organs of animals with nutritional diseases, all of which are from his own work files. A review on environmental nutritional diseases of captive reptiles appearing in 1971 JAVMA 159, pp. 1632 – 1643 shows 18 photographs of reptilians or organs thereof, 17 of which are his.

Another review appearing in the same year on management and medical care of goldfish (JAVMA 159, pp. 583 – 595) describes everything a veterinary doctor needs to know on this topic. It discusses breeding and pediatrics, biological data, nutritional and metabolic diseases, infectious diseases, parasites, skin diseases, diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive and nervous systems, diseases of the genitourinary tract, infectious diseases as well as methods of surgery and anesthesia.

In a 1977 paper (with M.S.Silberman), JAVMA 171, pp. 906 – 907, Wallach describes the foot care of captive elephants. These few examples should suffice to reveal his professional versatility and expertise. Wallach had access to many species of animals, large and small, and received autopsy material from zoos all over the Country. That explains the very large number of autopsies which he claims to have performed, a total of 17,500 of 454 animal species, and 3000 of humans, over the period of 12 years. That number is not excessive for a fully employed veterinary pathologist, because it on average amounts only to about 7 autopsies per day, assuming 250 working days per year, and taking into account that many of the autopsies involved small animals and were routine.

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